Intellectual Capital and Innovation in Organizational Competitiveness: An Analysis in the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)
Purpose: The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of intellectual capital and innovation on the organizational competitiveness of companies in the business process outsourcing (BPO) sector in Cali, Colombia. Design/Methodology/Approach: To this end, it was necessary to conduct 87 surveys for BPO companies in the city. The data were analyzed by means of structural equation modeling (SEM) using the SmartPLS statistical software. Findings: The findings confirm that intellectual capital has a positive influence on organizational competitiveness, innovation does not have a direct positive effect on organizational competitiveness but does indirectly through intellectual capital. Intellectual capital was the construct that best explained the performance of BPO companies in Cali. Of the three components—human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital—relational capital has been the most reliable. Practical Implications: The research finds BPO as one of the external factors of organizational competitiveness, outsourcing not only human capital, but also the technological tools necessary for the company to be equally successful in other parts of the world. Originality value: In this way, it is possible to determine that the BPO in Colombia has a solid foundation, supported by universal bases, which is important to describe the additional findings.