Theoretical Models for Sport Participation: Literature Review
Recent studies have analyzed theoretical models of sport participation. They claimed that sports activities relate to health and happiness and that there are various factors which determine sports participation, be it individual, sociological or psychological. Whilst some countries in Europe experienced an increase in sport activity over the past few decades, others saw a decline in the number of individuals who commit to physical activity. Several models have been constructed to explain and determine involvement in sports namely, ‘The Beckerian Approach’, ‘The SLOTH framework’ and ‘Green’s Model of Sport Development’. These models have unearthed specific important factors, which encourage people to take part in sports activities. These concerned age, gender, time constraints, income and level of education.In fact, findings has shown a positive and statistically significant relationship between age and frequency of sport participation and as age increased walking increased as well. Education plays an important role as well especially where adolescents are concerned. School was a key contributor to adolescents increased participation in physical activity and more specifically as they transitioned into secondary school.A successful example is that of Norway where a sport and physical recreation culture is deeply rooted in society and is supported by strategic socio-economic circumstances, high standards of living, equality between genders, abundant sporting facilities, a school system that keenly promotes physical activity, a strong voluntary sports clubs sector and high levels of parental contribution. Recent research has also focused on the sociological and psychological factors which contribute to increased physical activity. Social networks and friends significantly impact one’s decision to take part in sport, while the involvement of parents in sport affects sport frequency in a positive and significant way.